A new study suggests that gentrification has caused real estate markets to “tumble” into racial inequality.
It’s the first comprehensive study of gentrification that looks at gentrification over the last century, with more than 2,000 people interviewed across the country.
The study, published in the journal American Sociological Review, found that gentrifiers “did not make gains in median income or median family income during the era of the Great Gatsby, when the city was booming and housing was affordable.”
Instead, the gentrifier gains were “largely concentrated among those who could afford to live in a more desirable neighborhood,” the researchers wrote.
The findings echo the findings of other research, which has shown that gentrified neighborhoods in New York City have historically been more racially diverse, with white residents having lower median incomes than those who moved into neighborhoods in the suburbs.
However, they argue that the racial composition of gentrifying neighborhoods has changed over the past 20 years.
The authors note that gentra-natives are more likely to live close to transit and public transportation than are white gentrisers, and that the number of households that are minority and minority-dominated is higher in gentrified neighborhoods.
They also argue that gentracers have been moving in “at a much faster pace than white gentrification,” and that gentraphers have been making gains in “a number of neighborhoods that have been gentrify-adjacent.”
But the authors don’t discount the fact that the changes are still happening.
“These are not new changes,” says lead author David Haidt, a sociology professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
“This is a history of gentra displacement and change over time.”
In the study, the authors examined census data from the 1940s to the 1970s to look at the geographic distribution of the city’s black population.
The data shows that black residents in the city had a higher median income in the 1940 and 1970s, but were also less likely to be in a city with a high percentage of white residents.
But by the 1980s, the gap between black and white residents had been narrowing.
The researchers found that, “The racial income gap between white and black residents remained relatively constant throughout the 1980 to 2010 period.”
“While black-white segregation did become smaller over the decades, black residents continued to live farther from transit and transportation options and remained disproportionately represented in poor and minority neighborhoods,” the authors wrote.
“For example, in the 2000 census, only 0.2 percent of black households were in a poor or minority neighborhood compared with 8.3 percent of white households.
The percentage of blacks living in poor or marginalized neighborhoods was significantly lower in 2010 than in 1980.””
In fact, black households in poor neighborhoods were more likely than white households to be residing in such neighborhoods,” they continued.
“In the 1960s, blacks in poor areas had higher rates of poverty, lower income, and lower levels of educational attainment than whites, and were more than twice as likely as whites to have a bachelor’s degree.
Today, the racial disparity in poverty is still larger than it was in 1960.”
In addition, the researchers noted that “the number of black residents living in poverty increased dramatically from 1960 to 2000, but the percentage of African Americans living in impoverished neighborhoods remained relatively low.”
Haidt says that the study is the first to look in depth at the effects of gentrified gentrification.
“We don’t have data on how black and Latino neighborhoods in gentrified areas have changed over time,” he says.
“What we do know is that in the 1960 and 1970, there was a dramatic increase in the number and proportion of African American households in poverty, and there was also a dramatic decrease in the proportion of Latino households in the same neighborhoods.”
The study found that the percentage increase in poverty rates was “substantially greater” in the 1970 than in the 1980 census.
But “we didn’t see any significant increase in rates of white poverty,” Haidth says.
Haidts authors suggest that this is because black people are less likely than whites to move to areas with a higher percentage of nonwhite residents.
“If the black population is going to remain the majority in poverty in gentra communities, then we can’t blame gentrification for all the social problems,” Hidenstein says.
“When black people move to poor areas, they are not going to move there to live better.
They are going to go there to escape poverty,” he adds.
The paper’s co-authors are Emily Green, an assistant professor of sociology at the New School for Social Research, and Daniel Haidtan, a professor of economics at the City University of New York.
Haidtan says that his research team is “very much interested in how urbanization, gentrification, and displacement affect neighborhoods.”
He notes that the paper was published a year after he completed a paper on gentrification in Brooklyn, which he says “made a strong